A COLD START THEN PLENTY OF SUN

How to Grow Great Garlic

STORE IT PROPERLY UNTIL YOU'RE READY TO PLANT.
  • Seed garlic bulbs should be stored in a cool, dim/dark, dry, temperature-consistent, well-ventilated place off the ground until planting. We recommend an open paper bag, loosely woven basket or a wooden crate.

  • During storage, leave the bulbs intact to help regulate temperature and moisture, and only crack them (separate the cloves apart) no more than 14 days before you plan to plant.

PLANT IT IN THE FALL.
  • Be prepared to plant garlic in the fall, about 6 weeks prior to the hard ground freeze in your area. In our growing zone, this is usually in mid- to late-October, right after the first frost.

  • You must plant your seed garlic in the Fall directly following purchase because it will not keep until the next season. Hardneck garlic requires a cold period for the cloves to become bulbs, and spring planted garlic is not likely to grow to full maturity or get very large.

  • Because of garlic's high moisture content (unlike many other seeds), cloves will not stay viable (or mold free) much past late-October.

FERTILIZE & PREP YOUR SOIL.
  • Garlic likes lots of sun, so be sure your planting location gets at least 8 hours of full sun each day.

  • Fertilize your soil with a good, all-purpose, chemical-free or green fertilizer/compost several days before planting. This isn't mandatory, but we highly recommend it because garlic is a heavy feeder and requires a lot of nitrogen.

  • Separate the cloves from each bulb, but leave the clove wrappers intact. This is called cracking. We found a butter knife is the best tool to help crack the bulbs apart without damaging the cloves.

  • When cracking, only remove the whole bulb wrappers. Do not peel the individual cloves because they need their wrappers to protect against pests!

  • Do not wash, otherwise clean or refrigerate seed cloves.

  • Be sure to keep varieties separate so you can organize your planting.

  • If you choose to, the day before planting, sterilize your cloves in vinegar for 10 minutes, then put them in a seaweed fertilizer soak over night. This will greatly reduce the chance of diseases, increase plant health, and boost root development and bulb size. We highly recommend this step, especially for larger crops growing over 60 bulbs.

PLANT CLOVES TIP UP & COVER FOR WINTER.
  • One clove will grow one garlic bulb.

  • Plant garlic cloves into prepared soil about 3" deep and 6" apart with the tip of the clove up towards the sky, and the root side down.

  • It is very important that your clove is oriented "tip up" so the germ faces the sun and plants grow nice and straight!

  • Cover each clove with approximately 3” of lightly-packed soil.

  • A few weeks after planting and after the ground has frozen, put 4–6” of mulch over your whole garlic plot.

  • We have found that clean, organic straw works best, but shredded leaves and newspaper can work also IF you fluff them up after winter AND after steady watering or rain so they don't get too matted down. Whatever you experiment with and ultimately choose, avoid using hay! It is just too dense, it usually contains tenacious seeds that become weed competition for your garlic, and it holds too much moisture during the growing period, which promotes mold and rot.

WAIT, WAIT, WAIT & WEED, WEED, WEED.
  • In the spring, watch for your plants to peek out from under your mulch and weed, weed, weed as needed!

  • If you notice your mulch has been packed down too much over winter or after a period of heavy rain, gently fluff it up so your plants can make their way through easily.

  • In mid- to late-June, keep weeding, but also snap/trim the scapes off your plants just before they form a loop or just after the bulbil end starts to bulge. This is essential to encourage larger bulb growth!

  • Get creative with scapes to help satisfy all your garlic cravings until your harvest is ready. Check out our garlic scape recipes to help pass the time until harvest!

HARVEST AT THE CORRECT TIME.
  • Harvest when you have 3–4 full green leaves remaining, or 50% of the leaves have died and turned yellow from the bottom up.

  • When the plants are ready, loosen the soil around each bulb with a pitchfork or hoe, then pull each plant straight upwards out of the ground by grasping as close to the bulb as you can.

  • Shake and rub as much soil off the bulbs as possible.

  • Remove the the bottom (outer most) leaves of each plant to expose the beautiful, silky, clean bulb wrappers underneath.

  • Prepare a space for curing your garlic.

CURE, TRIM & ENJOY!
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A DELICATE BALANCE

8 Tips for Growing Amazing Garlic

  1. Purchase seed from a trusted source – like us! Common, white, grocery store garlic can’t be used for seed. Most likely, that garlic was grown in the mild climate of either northern California or China, and is likely a softneck variety that doesn't grow as well in colder climates as hardneck garlic. It's also likely to have been chemically treated so it won’t sprout. Instead, purchase garlic designated as seed for the best results.

    CONSIDER THIS: Try not to be too shocked at the initial price of garlic seed bulbs. Each clove in the bulb will grow another whole bulb of garlic, and will produce plenty for eating and seed for years to follow. One pound of garlic seed cloves can yield 25–40 bulbs or about 5 pounds of garlic depending on the variety. Planting with premium quality, naturally grown seed stock like ours will get your garlic crop off to a good start with fewer chances of disease, so it's worth the up-front cost!

     

  2. Select varieties that grow well in your zone. Buy your seed garlic from a supplier located near you in a similar growing environment. Garlic is highly adaptable to many growing conditions, but it can take a few years to adjust fully. You will get better results sooner if you grow garlic that has already been conditioned to your climate and soil type. Look up your growing zone, soil properties and general growing conditions at plantmaps.com.
     

  3. Plant only the largest cloves, and plant more than one variety. Sort your cloves prior to planting, and reserve only the medium and larger cloves for planting. Also, plant more than one variety because some may not perform as well as expected in the growing conditions of the season, or one variety could unexpectedly succumb to a disease. By having multiple garlic varieties growing, you can hedge your bets for a successful harvest.
     

  4. Plant at the optimum time for your location. Plant garlic in the fall, about 6 weeks before the estimated hard ground freeze for your area, but after the first frost/light freeze. In the Northern States, the best time to plant is around the 2nd or 3rd week of October.

    THE WHY: Garlic needs a consistent cold period of at least 30˚F or below for at least 8-10 weeks. Hardneck garlic varieties in particular require this period to encourage the seed clove to divide and grow into separate cloves that form a new bulb. This process is called vernalization. Planting in the fall gives the garlic clove a head start, and it begins to send out roots before going dormant when the ground freezes. Then it begins growing again as soon as the soil warms in the spring, when daylight increases to about 14 hours per day.

     

  5. Prepare your soil before planting. Success in growing garlic often comes down to proper soil properties, nutrients and preparation. Garlic thrives in full sun, and in loose, somewhat sandy or loamy soil. Choose a well-drained spot that receives at least 8 hours of full sunlight per day on average. Also, select an area that did not have onions or other alliums growing this year. The soil needs time to recover between these types of crops because they are heavy feeders. Remove weeds and work in a very generous layer of finished compost, organic matter and natural/organic fertilizer before planting.
     

  6. Mulch to conserve moisture and prevent weeds. Garlic has a shallow root system and will stop growing in dry soil conditions, or when the roots get too hot. About 3–4 weeks after planting, add 4–6 inches of mulch like straw (not hay), shredded leaves, newspaper, etc.) on top of the soil surface to help conserve moisture, prevent weeds, and insulate the roots. Do not add a heavy layer of mulch too soon after planting, as this can insulate the ground too much and delay the plants from going dormant naturally. We usually wait until mid-November to mulch our fields.
     

  7. Weed relentlessly and remove garlic scapes in early- to mid-June. Keeping weeds under control is integral to growing large, healthy bulbs, but so is removing the scapes. Garlic scapes are the flowers that hardneck garlic plants produce. About three weeks before the garlic bulb has finished growing, it sends up this flower from the middle of the stalk. The scape grows upwards for several inches, then will curl once or twice before continuing to grow upward. Removing the scape just as it starts to curl and the bulbil on the end starts to bulge allows the plant to devote its energy into growing a larger, healthier garlic bulb.

    GOOD TO KNOW: These tender shoots are edible and are a bonus crop. Scapes can be used in any recipe that calls for garlic. They have the texture of green beans or asparagus, and have a sweet, milder garlic flavor. See our Scape Mania page for more information about the mighty scape, or check out scape recipes in Our Stinky Kitchen.

     

  8. Time your harvest well. This can be tricky, but lifting the bulbs too early will give you undeveloped, flavorless, small bulbs, while harvesting too late could cause the cloves to split through their skins or develop rot or mold. The number of days to maturity varies with the climate and variety, but generally garlic is finished growing when 50% of the leaves on the bottom of the stalks turn completely yellow. Leaves grow from the bottom up, which is why the leaves at the bottom will die back first.

    GOOD TO KNOW: Each variety of garlic has its own harvest schedule, so you may have some garlic that's ready to harvest earlier and some a week or two later. If you're unsure whether or not your garlic is ready to pick, you can always dig up a test bulb. Harvest-ready bulbs should be large, firm, and the skins should be filled out tightly with cloves. If this is not how it looks, give the plants a little more time to continue filling the bulbs out, then harvest when you have only 3–4 green leaves remaining on the plant.

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A FRESH, EARLY SPRING TREAT THAT WE'RE NOW OBSESSED WITH:

Growing Green Garlic

Green garlic is really just young garlic that is harvested early in the spring before the bulbs develop. They have a delicate garlic flavor that can be enjoyed fresh or cooked. Green garlic emerges as a bunch, and they look just like green onions or scallions. These fragrant stalks are a refreshing addition to stir fries, salads and dips!

 

STEPS FOR EASY GROWING

Green garlic seeds are very small garlic bulbs, about ½”–¾” in size. They can easily be grown in the garden or in containers.

 

TO PLANT:
  1. In mid- to late-October, dig rows of 4" deep trenches about 3–4” apart in your garden or rectangular/square containers. For circular containers, spiral the trench out from the center with 3” of space between trenches. (Be sure to plant in a spot that didn't have onions or other alliums growing during the summer months.)

  2. Place whole bulbs in each trench 2–3” apart with the pointy ends up. TIP: Alternately, you can crack the seed bulbs to separate the individual cloves, then plant them the same way, but we’ve found it’s just easier to just plant the bulbs whole because they’re easier to handle than so many small cloves.

  3. Carefully cover the bulbs loosely with soil.

  4. In early-November, cover the planted garden area or container with 3–4” of light mulch, such as straw, to protect the bulbs from winter kill.

  5. In the Spring, when plants are about 10” tall, pull or dig up the entire bunches of plants, and separate them into individual stalks. Stalks should have no bulbing or bulging at the base.

  6. Remove an outer leaf or two from each stalk if needed and rinse to remove soil.

  7. Wash the roots well, and trim them to ½” then pat dry.

  8. Bind bunches of stalks together lightly with twist ties or rubber bands and store them in the crisper drawer in the fridge. When stored properly, green garlic can keep for up to 3 weeks.
    TIP: Avoid storing green garlic in containers or plastic bags as they trap moisture condensation and promote rot and mold growth.

 

For delicious green garlic recipes, visit Our Stinky Kitchen!

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